Nadia – I’m curious about where you’re getting the elephant dung. For economic growth of a agriculture dominated nation, there is need for restructuring of the national economy, decreasing the share of the agricultural sector in the GDP (gross domestic product ) and in the work force , and boosting the industrial sectors. And Norman Bourlag is my anti-hero. From the animals that you have from the farm and use that as a fertilizer – pigs, cows, horses, mules, goats, chickens – all that and even human manure. Creative Commons CC BY 2.0. And what you said about Agent Orange and things like that. Rashid – It’s supporting a system of agriculture production that is killing the earth. And the easiest way to lose it all is to have one thing – one crop – out there. You can buy round-up to spray the cracks in your sidewalk. This period is marked by industrialization, agriculture, and expansion. The importance of understanding this history cannot be over-stressed. Heather – So, I think this is really important because this demonstrates how nature will resist this science-based agriculture. If I want to grow my own trees what is the best way to tell the conditions of the soil. These men were well intentioned. Both sides attributed this late industrialization to an over-reliance on the export of staples: cod, furs, timber, and wheat. Historically, you plant a crop and every 10 seeds you get back you save one and you eat the other nine. MacDonald J, Korb P, Hoppe R. Farm Size and the Organization of U.S. Largely as a result of consolidation, most food production in the U.S. now takes place on massive-scale operations. This includes fruits, nuts, vegetables, wheat, and rice. I am thinking of that because of what you say regarding the political elements in these big cities, especially and with you being an expert, I wonder if you could give a little more information on that? Rashid – It’s a very simple proposition. … Such plants are referred to as cross-pollinated plants. But they’ve taken these chemicals and…let me make it more simple… and use cotton as an example. Today, almost every product is mass-produced, but this wasn't always the case. That’s the principle ingredient we’re using. Industrializationis the process in which an economy moves from agriculturally-based to mainly manufacturing. 2014. And finally, and importantly, he says that vis-a-vis industrial agriculture that what’s important is to create the “alternative” which he has done in his natural urban agricultural work. Gustafson RH, Bowen RE. If you come to our site you’re able to get food, you can see it right there in the ground growing and you’re able to bring it home. This was inspired thanks to Atlanta’s organic urban farmer Rashid Nuri who created the Truly Living Well Center for Natural Urban Agriculture. The share of the agricultural sector in the GNP was almost 50% in 1950, then 25% in 1980, 15.3% in 1990, 11% in 2005, 8% in 2016. To avoid the laborious task of manuring soils to supply nutrients, inorganic fertilizers, such as superphosphates, came into use as early as the 1840s. of History, Memorial University of Newfoundland. Wheat harvest in Idaho. Crop Farming. Industrialization of Agriculture. Industrialization is the process by which an economy moves from primarily agrarian production to mass-produced and technologically advanced goods and services. 3.2 Industrialization, Labour, and Historians Robert Sweeny, Dept. Then, they use that surplus production to dominate the world politics by using food as a weapon around the world rather than guns. It would be good if you could break down for the listeners what that is. Round-up is the (main) drug for killing weeds. Many other industries in the food system, including animal slaughtering and processing, also underwent major consolidation. They invested in more agricultural innovations, changing agriculture even more. Rashid – And the irony is that I’m using elephant dung now to grow food. In the eighteenth century, the world witnessed a revolution in agriculture led by three inventions—the seed drill, the threshing machine, and the cotton gin. The number of U.S. hog farms declined from 1.85 million to 63,000 between 1959 and 2012. Those chemicals kill everything that’s in the soil. And then the Second World War war ended and you had all these surplus chemicals and all the chemical manufacturers and the munitions manufacturers wanted to keep making money. As a farmer you can’t allow for that. In 1952, 83 percent of the Chinese workforce were employed in agriculture. This meant routine jobs like sowing seeds, harvesting crops, milking cows, and feeding and slaughtering animals could be mechanized, reducing (and in some cases eliminating) the need for human and animal labor. This is what we’ve done with all the life around us. First the PLU’s are the codes that you find on the food – like cherries are 4045. The French and English armies during the Hundred Years War marched back and forth across the land; they ransacked and burned towns, drained the food supply, disrupted agriculture and trade, and left disease and famine in their wake. 16. The meatpacking plant of Chicago’s Union Stockyards was a sprawling facility that handled the slaughter, processing, packaging, and distribution of cattle and swine. Like work on an assembly line, specialized labor often involves repetitive tasks that can be performed by machines. But agriculture production was reduced because of droughts. So, no, it’s not just America, and the western system its being exported all over the world. You have to go back to the seed company and you have to have the inputs for the seeds and monocrops to produce effectively – the chemicals – you’ve got to have the fertilizer, you’ve got to have the pesticides. The soil is alive. But in the natural state of growth, we have an incredible diversity. Concentration of Agricultural Markets. When and where did industrialized agriculture and ILOs come into being, and 2. Figure 3.8 Postcards like this one were a means to promote the industrial culture emerging in towns like Oshawa in 1910. As the glaciers retreated and plant life patterns and growth areas changed in response, it meant that the need to move so often became slightly less essential - though undoubtedly the lifestyle carried on for thousands of years as people sought to maximize their resource acquisiti… Nadia – That makes sense. If you don’t want to have weeds in your field, you hoe your field. Nadia – Rashid, I have two questions. And what happened is, rather than looking for ways to be in tune with nature and the core of nature, man got to the point where he thought he could control and dominate nature. The Teaching Company. Part of the requirement is to use lots of water to get the chemicals down in the soil, to hold them down, and to help them uptake to the plants. Above photo: Atlanta’s OG of black farming, K. Rashid Nuri, at Truly Living Well’s Old Fourth Ward farm. And they did this for a long time, but it doesn’t work because there are certain elements that have been left out. When a small number of companies have a large market share of an industry, the market for that industry is said to be concentrated. Then they add the round-up to kill the things as they emerge from the soil so you just have the plants. Over the same period, the average number of hogs per farm increased from 37 to 1,044. The July 2011 interview with Rashid Nuri was by me, Heather Gray, along with questions from co-producer Nadia Ali. M. de Lucia, Assennato D. Agricultural Engineering in Development: Post-Harvest Operations and Management of Foodgrains. With all the foliage in the tropical area you could not see the down to the forest floor. The metaphor is this. I respect the work you are doing in a basic and essential part of life that is just overlooked by everybody. 12. So, if you’re farming on a very large scale, and can live on a small margin, because of the volume that you’re creating, you can make money. Those are the four that really stand out that are commercial crops around the world. As you can see from all this impressive background, Rashid’s breadth of both the knowledge and analysis of the politics and history of food is significant. Rashid – Yeah, that’s where it was used to defoliate the trees so they could see the Vietnamese as they were walking along the paths. USDA ERS. Specialization was also applied to animal genetics, as selective breeding produced animals designed for a single outcome—large breast meat, for example, or increased milk production. Complementing these new tools were new ideas, set forth in books. You have to do this instead of saving seeds you had from last year and putting those seeds back in the ground – this is a problem. There’s no safety there. There’s a German called Justus von Liebig (1803-1873) who in his laboratory learned there were certain nutrients that plants needed at a minimum in order to be able to grow plants. It’s supporting a system of agriculture production that is killing the earth. Contact us for more information on the … Most of this was accounted for by herbicide use. Rashid – We’ll give you food if you do what we tell you to do. 24.  Began in Great Britain in 1780s  Improvements in agriculture  raised food production  lower food prices  more disposable income and raised demand for manufactured goods  Rapid population growth  Failure of traditional cottage industries to keep up with the huge demand of cotton clothes throughout Britain The Early Phase of Revolution But the reason you have the boll weevil is multifaceted. It was a chemical that killed all the crops and harmed the people. Decisions about who produces our food, what food is produced, how it is produced, and who gets to eat that food have been steadily moving from … households and governments to … corporation boardrooms. Heather – That’s a really good question because I know you know this so well. Rashid – Well, that’s a very good point. We’ve lost that closeness to nature. Caller (5) – I want to give thanks to brother Rashid for the information that he’s giving. Heather – Wasn’t Agent Orange first used in Vietnam? Began in Great Britain in 1780s Improvements in agriculture raised food production lower food prices more disposable income and raised demand for manufactured goods Rapid population growth Failure of traditional cottage industries to keep up with the huge demand of cotton clothes throughout Britain The Early Phase of Revolution Below are detailed timelines covering farm machinery and technology, transportation, life on the farm, farmers and the land, and crops and livestock. Industrialization of Agriculture [Lesson Duration: 50 minutes] Lesson Overview Examine what percentage of human history has included agriculture. Between 1964 and 1976, total pesticide applications on major U.S. crops increased by 143 percent. It was the start of everything. From 1950 to 2000, production on U.S. farms more than doubled with less than a third of the labor costs.9 Photo credit: Dan Davidson, 2010. After the Second World War they had all this ammonium nitrate left over that you use for gunpowder. However, the relative significance of farming has dropped steadily since the beginning of industrialization, and in 2003 - for the first time in history - the services sector overtook agriculture as the economic sector employing the most people worldwide. Some people did well and they lived…they lived. If you go to the cash register or the self check-out you can put in the number of the commodity, it’s the same number at any store that you go in to. Grain and bean crops, such as corn, wheat, rice, and soy, must be cut from the fields (reaped) and removed from the inedible parts of the plant (threshed). In Congress, if I give you $50,000 campaign contribution or through a political action committee and you get re-elected and you know what my point of view is on a subject, you’re going to listen to me because you want to get that money again so you can get re-elected. Industrialization is a transformation away from an agricultural- or resource-based economy, toward an economy based on mass manufacturing. Get your long-term food in. History of technology - History of technology - Agriculture: Another major area that began to show signs of profound change in the 18th century was agriculture. In just 12 years, between 1964 and 1976, synthetic and mineral fertilizer applications on U.S. crops nearly doubled.10, Pesticide applications on major U.S. crops, 1964–1992. 1998;56(1):15-33. 2013. You have to pay for the irrigation systems as you’ve got to make sure you have enough water because you can’t use these new technologies in agriculture without sufficient water. Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future, 2013. By 1900, 40 percent of Americans lived in cities. Rashid – To lead into where these suicides are coming from, you’ve got these farmers – as in India – who are convinced to use this new technology, which is making money for folks back here in the west. Structure and Finances of U.S. Farms: 2005 Family Farm Report. The only way you’re really going to know what you’re getting in your food is to grow it yourself or go to someone you know who is growing the food for you. This approach was applied to nearly all facets of food production. Heather – What is it doing to us? The edited transcription of the interview is below. 2014. So corn becomes the bullets.”  – Rashid Nuri. The grasses change over seasons. 13. Doesn’t everything need water to grow? It’s something that you buy. Lesson B: Industrialization of Agriculture Agriculture has dramatically transformed over the last century. Contact us for more information on the … Let me couch this in some sort of way by saying that throughout the history of agriculture we have been farming naturally, and then in the past century and a half this started to change a bit. The water’s not just to go down to the roots, the water’s got to get the stuff up into the plants so it takes more to suck it up. Over the years shown in this graph, U.S. corn crops were responsible for the largest share of pesticide and fertilizer use.10, The early 1900s saw the introduction of synthetic fertilizers and chemical pesticides, innovations that have become a hallmark of industrial crop production. They started breeding programs to hybridize the food and then they standardized it so that all corn is the same size and harvested at the same time.Then we had a man named Norman Borlaug. I think it’s extremely important for people to know who grows their food, the quality of their food and where their food comes from. In: Economist’s Role in the Agricultural Sustainability Paradigm. Some materials may not reflect the views of the Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future. Nadia Ali – When you say it got us where we are today, are you speaking about all of the countries and agricultural communities on the planet or just the western ones? Is this unique to India right now or is this occurring around the globe. There’s some science behind that. Rashid – Yeah, I’ve got to tell you a little joke. INDUSTRIALIZATION or Industrial development describes the process of transition from an agricultural society, devoid of mechanization, to a society that is based on industry. A tool is a necessity for all activities that are to be done years and years ahead. By hand, a person can thresh roughly 15 to 40 kg of grain per hour, usually by beating the harvested crop against a hard surface to shake the grain loose from the inedible chaff that surrounds it. It has only been America’s involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan where you had recession and wars at the same time. Lesson B: Industrialization of Agriculture Agriculture has dramatically transformed over the last century. There’s mycelium in there, all kinds of micro-bacterias that are growing in the ground to make that soil alive – a living breathing thing. For most of our existence, humans were hunter-gatherers. Rifkin J. This is the man who won the Nobel Peace Prize for the Green Revolution (see note #1 below) – thinking it was helping people.But what Green Revolution has actually done is it has created greater poverty around the world rather than riches. History of Agriculture primer Compare the two images of tractors and list the similarities and differences and how has industrialization transformed the world's food production. Industrialization of Agriculture; Consequences and Challenges of Sustainability [1] John Ikerd [2] The modern sustainable agriculture movement in the U.S. was born in the mid-1980s from the merging of three different streams of public concern. The shift to agriculture is believed to have occurred independently in several parts of the world, including northern China, Central America, and the Fertile Crescent, a region in the Middle East that cradled some of the earliest civilizations. Agron J. Specialization aims to increase efficiency by narrowing the range of tasks and roles involved in production. If you’re raising chickens or if you’re raising cows I approve of that grassland. To the soil, to the people, to global warming? You can’t dominate nature. New Haven: Yale University Press; 2005. It is called edible landscaping. But if you defoliated it all then you could get the helicopters up there are that could spot the troops as they were moving along. I have friends who have lived in the city of Atlanta all their lives. Main focus of these reforms were to grant complete rights for freedom of trade, thus paving the way for the needs for the age of industrialization and urbanization. In the U.S. beef slaughtering and processing industry, the four largest companies earn 82 percent of the sales. The history of industrialization of Nnewi by Chukwuemeka Nzewi, president Nnewi chamber of commerce, industry, mines and agriculture 1. She’s right. You can’t save your seeds and put them back the next year as farmers has always done. The Ethics and Economics of Agrifood Competition. Most often before they even plant they’ll go into the fields and with chemicals kill all the weeds that are there. 1 By 6000 BCE, most of the farm animals we are familiar with today had been domesticated. Specialized farmers, by contrast, can focus all their knowledge, skills, and equipment on one or two enterprises, such as growing corn and soy, or fattening beef cattle. Nevertheless, they’re still able to grow more crops. Rashid – That’s right. Heather– And they are generally called commodities, right? Heather – Years ago when there were problems with cotton growth, what was said I think was that the reason there was such a massive problem with this is that cotton was a monocrop. are created in laboratories by seed companies. So what you put back is going to be a throwback from the previous generations of seeds where the seeds have been crossed genetically and thus that keeps farmer in debt to and beholden to the seed companies that provide them with new seed that they have to pay for. Ikerd JE. 18. The history of American agriculture (1776–1990) covers the period from the first English settlers to the modern day. Heather – And it’s getting into our groundwater? Tool-making, Agriculture, It makes good sense. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. You have the different plants growing next to each other – companion planting – and the plants will repel insects and repel disease. And what you’re finding all over the world is that western thought processes about agriculture have been exported all over the world. You have to have fertilizer; you have to have chemicals for the pests; and you have to have irrigation. While Americans have long eaten with good health in mind, 1980 marks a turning point as food, nutrients, and health became fused in the American consciousness when the US Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services published the first Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Lecture 8: New England Heretics—Religious and Economic. I will use the bacteria – it’s natural – to kill soft worms. It is an organophosphorus compound, specifically a phosphonate. 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