Of the clinical psychologists and undergraduates who indicated that their views on repressed memory had changed, most reported that they had become more skeptical about repressed memory. . In Study 1, we asked undergraduates about their beliefs about memory and administered individual difference measures to ascertain the correlates of memory beliefs. Higher scores for fantasy proneness and absorption were associated with greater agreement that some people have photographic memory and that some individuals can remember events back to birth. Less than 30% of research-oriented psychologists (experimental psychologists, members of the Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, members of the Society for a Science of Clinical Psychology, and clinical-psychology researchers) agreed that “traumatic memories are often repressed.” In stark contrast, at least 60% of members of all other participant groups agreed with this statement. Two possible confounds in the comparison of psychotherapists were age and gender. ARC-8380 or "Memory" was an Advanced Recon Commando (ARC) Clone Trooper during the Clone Wars. The responses reinforce the possibility that clinical psychologists and undergraduates have become more skeptical of repressed memory. Are the Memory Wars Over (1) - Psychological Science http\/pss.sagepub.com Are the'Memory Wars Over A Scientist-Practitioner Gap in Beliefs About Therefore, like psychotherapists, undergraduates seem to show an increase in skepticism about recovering repressed memories. (2006) found that, although some laypersons’ ideas about memory (e.g., memory for dramatic vs. ordinary events) were consistent with existing evidence from memory research, 45% of respondents with a college degree believed that frightening and dramatic memories can be blocked; approximately 40% of respondents with a college degree believed that people who have committed murder can repress the memory of the crime. (2000) gave American Psychological Association members who were clinicians (91% with doctoral degrees) a vignette describing a case of reported CSA involving memory recovered in therapy. These groups tended to agree with the existence of repressed memories more than did psychoanalysts. Error bars represent standard errors. 'Memory Wars': Polish, Russian Fight Over World War II Shifts To Auschwitz January 20, 2020 08:53 GMT By Mike Eckel; A museum now operates on the territory of … In this respect, the broader dissemination of basic and applied memory research within graduate programs in clinical psychology and training programs in other mental-health professions may be a helpful step, although research will be needed to determine the effectiveness of this approach for narrowing the research-practice gap. Find out about Lean Library here, If you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below. The p values are from two-proportion z tests comparing the two groups’ percentage of agreement with each of the three statements. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. In a survey of 2,000 adult Norwegians, Magnussen et al. Among practitioners of alternative therapies, such as neuro-linguistic programming, Internal Family Systems therapy, and hypnosis, more than 80% of participants agreed to some extent that “traumatic memories are often repressed,” and more than half agreed that “repressed memories can be retrieved in therapy accurately.”. In Study 2, which compared beliefs from the 1990s and 2011–2012, we found that undergraduates and mainstream psychotherapists showed increased skepticism concerning repressed memory over time. Results for additional groups are presented in Table S2.4 in the Supplemental Material. We found that a large percentage of alternative therapists, such as those using neuro-linguistic programming, Internal Family Systems therapy, and hypnotherapy, indicated high levels of agreement with the idea of repressed memories and their recovery in therapy. By continuing to browse Known as the “memory wars” of the 1990s, the dispute was sparked in part by the case of an American man called George Franklin, who was accused by his … Study 1 revealed that surprisingly high percentages of undergraduates agreed with the concept of repressed memory, and this raised the question of whether there had been any change in beliefs about repressed memory over the past 2 decades. In the early 1990s, many scholars were skeptical of a dramatic increase in reports of repressed memories of child sexual abuse (CSA) and satanic ritual abuse. The percentage of students agreeing that such therapists implant false memories increased significantly from 3% to 6% (z = 2.33, p = .019), although the more recent percentage is still low. At least some of the sharp differences in memory beliefs that we identified may be both an effect and a cause of the broader scientist-practitioner gap in mental health. Are the “memory wars” over? Patihis, Lawrence, Lavina Y. Ho, Ian W. Tingen, Scott O. Lilienfeld, and Elizabeth Loftus. Undergraduates (N = 390) at the University of California, Irvine, participated in a two-session study for course credit (74.9% female, 25.1% male; mean age = 20.2 years). On one side of the debate were individuals who believed that memories of traumatic events can be repressed, such that the memories remain inaccessible for years and yet can be recovered accurately in therapy (e.g., Blume, 1990; Freyd, 1994). Results From Study 2: Clinical Psychologists’ and Undergraduates’ Responses to Questions Concerning Change in Their Beliefs About Repressed Memory. Previous page. For assistance during data collection, we thank Stephany Debski, Stephanie Martinez, Patricia Place, and Maryanne Garry and Kazuo Mori (both from the Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition). Factor 2 appeared to reflect beliefs regarding the unreliability and reconstructive nature of memory in general (see Supplemental Results for Study 1 in the Supplemental Material for a summary of the factor analysis and how the factor composites correlated with individual differences). A Scientist-Practitioner Gap in Beliefs About Repressed Memory. These results hold implications for the potential resolution of the science-practice gap and for the dissemination of memory research in the training of mental-health professionals. What are the memory wars? Responses in 1996–1997 indicated significantly greater likelihood that the woman in the vignette was sexually abused compared with responses in 2011–2012, t(78) = 2.97, p = .004. For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. Indeed, survey data suggest that many practitioners rate clinical experience, intuition, and consistency of clinical observations with their theoretical orientation as more important than published research in informing their treatment decisions (Pignotti & Thyer, 2012; Stewart & Chambless, 2007; von Ransom & Robinson, 2006). There was, however, a drop from 24% in 1995 to 12% in 2011 in the percentage of students endorsing the belief that therapists who encourage individuals to recall repressed memories are using legitimate methods (two-proportion z test: z = 5.07, p < .001). Moreover, little is known about the extent to which different groups of mental-health professionals hold different beliefs regarding memories, including recovered memories. Several of the nine memory-belief questions were developed for the purposes of this study, and others were drawn from the literature (see Table S1.2 in the Supplemental Material). [No authors listed] Erratum for Psychol Sci. Of the clinical psychologists and undergraduates who indicated that their views on repressed memory had changed, most reported that they had become more skeptical about repressed memory. What two theories could explain DRM? (1996). In Garry, Loftus, and Brown’s (1994) survey of graduate students in education, health, and nursing courses, 88% of students stated that painful experiences can be hidden in the unconscious, and 64% indicated that the hidden memories can be emotionally damaging. Results from Study 2, we examined what undergraduates believe about how memory beliefs are interrelated, rationality and! 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